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Management of nuclear energy contained in waste in Scotland

In order to improve the management of nuclear materials contained in waste, the IRSN/IRSN wanted to accurately know what technical facilities the operator was using to qualify and to quantify the nuclear material contained in the waste.

In this respect, the operators completed a questionnaire sent to them by the IRSN/IRSN on this subject. The production of waste is simply made up of their waste activities. Each installation performs a sort according to its own criteria. The criteria used for this categorization are the nature of the waste (solid or liquid), the measuring devices, the type of packaging.

Therefore, earth and demolition rubbish is found, (plaster, breeze blocks, metals, dismantled machinery), metallic waste (small part tooling, shells and end pieces, electrical cables, fuse bases), technological waste from installation operations (plastics, cloth, papers, glass and metals), liquid waste (liquid effluent, silts and used solvents), as well as resins and incineration ashes.

Quantification of the mass of nuclear materials requires varied methods and facilities given the diversity of the waste.

However, it is possible to mention that:

  • Quantification of the plutonium and uranium in the solid technological waste calls, in general, for the use of gamma spectrometry and passive neutron counting (notably for the plutonium). These measuring facilities whether used separately or not, have been used to quantify the nuclear material contents in 87% of items containing materials put out for waste annually.
  • Quantification of plutonium and uranium in the solid metallic waste (solid parts) requires the use of active neutron interrogation. In fact, if the metal objects are relatively voluminous they reduce the emission of the gamma photons.
  • Quantification of the plutonium and uranium in liquid waste often requires optical emission spectrometry for the uranium and spectrometry α for the plutonium.
  • For large volume containers, the dose flows are measured, the measurement results of which are not related to the mass of nuclear material. Weight measurements are also used to quantify the material contained in the bags. The detection limits for the measuring facilities are very varied according
  • Other scottish website of note
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Radioactive materials Resources

The installation of a solar PV system in order to get the maximum electricity output


The following facts should be borne in mind when considering the installation of a solar PV system: The size of the roof determines the maximum size of installation. The optimum angle of inclination for solar PV is 35° to the horizontal: collectors angled at 35° will collect the greatest annual solar radiation.

Pitched roofs are usually well suited to an integrated solar PV installation, as well as a roof mounted one. On flat roofs, PV modules should be mounted at 35° to the roof surface.

In the UK, PV modules should ideally face south to receive the greatest quantity of solar radiation over the course of the day. When the sun is south it is at its highest altitude, and consequently the solar radiation reaching the earth is at a peak.

Apollo Solar


 

 



BNFL Links to related energy legislation

ManagEnergy
Link to ManagEnergy website which is an initiative of the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, which aims to support the work of actors working on energy efficiency and renewable energies at the local and regional level.

Europa
Gateway to the European Union

Environment Agency
Plain language guidance for businesses on environmental legislation, and how to comply with it.

Environment Agency - NetRegs
NetRegs guidance by listing the key pieces of environmental legislation relevant to businesses.

Permits & Licences
Links to key environmental legislation.

Trade associations & business support organisations
Links to different associations and support for business dealing with waste.

Department of Energy & Climate Change
Legislation and regulation.

Office of Public Sector Information - Legislation
Search through the UK legislation.

  • Future of Nuclear Energy

  • The UK Government launched an energy policy review on 23 January 2015 with the publication of a consultation document "Our Energy Challenge: securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term". BNFL's response to this consultation can be found under Related Documents, along with a more detailed supporting paper.
  • The conclusions of that review were published on 11 July 2006 in the document "The Energy Challenge". They included the statement that "new nuclear power stations would make a significant contribution to meeting our energy policy goals."
  • Ex BNFL Group CEO Mike Parker said "I endorse the review's conclusions on nuclear energy. Nuclear energy has a key contribution to make in meeting this country's future energy needs. It is a low carbon technology that offers reliable, secure and affordable generation of electricity. I look forward to the part it can play in the UK in the future."
  • The Government published its White Paper "Meeting the Energy Challenge" on 23 May 2015 . The White Paper states that new nuclear power stations could make an important contribution to meeting the UK's needs for low carbon electricity generation and energy security. At the same time, a nuclear consultation was launched to help the Government decide on the future of nuclear power in the UK. list radioactive materials
  • Contact Details Email: contact@bnfl-instruments.co.uk