Measurement and characterisation of radioactive materials - List, Facts, Information
Welcome to the information on the measurement and characterisation of radioactive materials website where you will uncover the most resourceful links and articles on all legal matters related to radioactive materials.
Radiological waste characterization involves detecting the presence of individual radionuclides and quantifying their inventories in the waste.
This can be done by a variety of techniques, depending on the waste form, radionuclides involved and level of detail/accuracy required. For example, a simple radiation dose rate measurement will give an indication of the total quantity of gamma emitting radionuclides in a waste package, but will not identify individual radionuclides or their concentrations. Gamma spectroscopy will identify the individual radionuclides and, when properly calibrated, their quantities as well.
Other techniques, such as active/passive neutron interrogation, alpha spectroscopy, and liquid scintillation counting are used for other classes of radionuclides. The preferred methods are often referred to as "non-destructive" or "non-invasive", since they do not involve opening a radioactive waste package to take samples. The terms most frequently used are NDA (non-destructive assay), NDE (non-destructive examination) and NDT (non-destructive testing).
It is the operator’s responsibility to declare as nuclear material whose use is no longer economically profitable, generally due to low concentration of those materials. It is worth pointing out that the British regulation considers nuclear materials all along the fuel cycle (excluding ores) up to waste disposal with the adapted regime for waste mentioned above. That means that, for instance, uranium ores with a uranium concentration level of 1% currently met is not taken into account.
That means also that nuclear materials in similar concentration could be legible to be treated as waste but possibly also to be exempted from British domestic safeguards.The experience gained from the British safeguards inspections shows a variety of waste from scraped materials to contaminated items, especially in facilities under dismantling. Setting concentration levels could help to reduce those discrepancies and either to define a safeguards termination for those materials or to harmonize what could be labelled as waste in different facilities. see publications or products
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Radioactive materials Resources
- Radiation Protection News
- Products & Services : Radioactivity : Ionising Radiation : Science + Technology : National Physical Laboratory
- Nuclear and renewable energy Publications
- Waste Recycling UK
- Renewable Energy Management
- Alternatives to Nuclear Energy
The installation of a solar PV system in order to get the maximum electricity output
The following facts should be borne in mind when considering the installation of a solar PV system: The size of the roof determines the maximum size of installation. The optimum angle of inclination for solar PV is 35° to the horizontal: collectors angled at 35° will collect the greatest annual solar radiation.
Pitched roofs are usually well suited to an integrated solar PV installation, as well as a roof mounted one. On flat roofs, PV modules should be mounted at 35° to the roof surface.
In the UK, PV modules should ideally face south to receive the greatest quantity of solar radiation over the course of the day. When the sun is south it is at its highest altitude, and consequently the solar radiation reaching the earth is at a peak.
BNFL Links to related energy legislation
Link to ManagEnergy website which is an initiative of the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy and Transport, which aims to support the work of actors working on energy efficiency and renewable energies at the local and regional level.
Gateway to the European Union
Plain language guidance for businesses on environmental legislation, and how to comply with it.
Environment Agency - NetRegs
NetRegs guidance by listing the key pieces of environmental legislation relevant to businesses.
Permits & Licences
Links to key environmental legislation.
Trade associations & business support organisations
Links to different associations and support for business dealing with waste.
Department of Energy & Climate Change
Legislation and regulation.
Office of Public Sector Information - Legislation
Search through the UK legislation.
Future of Nuclear Energy
- The UK Government launched an energy policy review on 23 January 2015 with the publication of a consultation document "Our Energy Challenge: securing clean, affordable energy for the long-term". BNFL's response to this consultation can be found under Related Documents, along with a more detailed supporting paper.
- The conclusions of that review were published on 11 July 2006 in the document "The Energy Challenge". They included the statement that "new nuclear power stations would make a significant contribution to meeting our energy policy goals."
- Ex BNFL Group CEO Mike Parker said "I endorse the review's conclusions on nuclear energy. Nuclear energy has a key contribution to make in meeting this country's future energy needs. It is a low carbon technology that offers reliable, secure and affordable generation of electricity. I look forward to the part it can play in the UK in the future."
- The Government published its White Paper "Meeting the Energy Challenge" on 23 May 2015 . The White Paper states that new nuclear power stations could make an important contribution to meeting the UK's needs for low carbon electricity generation and energy security. At the same time, a nuclear consultation was launched to help the Government decide on the future of nuclear power in the UK. list radioactive materials
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